Trust in us: Namibian Standards Institution

The Namibian Standards Institution (NSI) has been operational since January 2008 and has already scored numerous successes. Primarily, a national standards body (NSB) is a part of the world standards requirement based on the WTO Agreement of 1995. A national standards body is responsible for the promotion of standardisation and maintenance of standards to enhance international trade and compliance.

Since inception, the NSI has provien that it has what it takes to make a significant contribution to economic development and growth. Already, the NSI has attracted highly skilled Namibians to conduct complicated tests. To date, the NSI is fully in charge of the testing and fishery products destined for the export market in European countries. In addition, the NSI has been able to submit three clean unqualified audited financial reports. It is envisaged that with the upcoming industrial development in Namibia, the NSI will play a pivotal role in facilitating the growth of the manufacturing industry.

In line with the development of the SMEs, sectors provisions are being made to accommodate this important sector to strengthen and develop growth.

As a newly established SoE, the NSI is fully funded by the Government; there is room for expansion for NSI to fully maximise its’s operations.

It is sad that the NSI does not have power to test goods, especially those from Asian countries such as China.

To get more insight on the operations of the NSI, Prime Focus had an exclusive interview with Riundja Ali Kaakunga (Othy), the CEO, to give us the inside story of the NSI . . .

PF: You come from a legal background, how did you find yourself at NSI?

RK: It was mere a coincidence; they (Ministry of Trade and Industry) needed somebody with a vision, somebody who learns quickly. I had no knowledge of the concept of standardisation, or quality assurance when I joined government in 1996 but it took me less than a year to know precisely what was required.

The ministry took me on short missions to Botswana, to South Africa and eventually to Sweden for a month. And when I came back from Sweden, I was ready to contribute significantly to the establishment of the national quality infrastructure in Namibia.

Then, I managed the drafting of the national quality policy and the laws. We drafted and Parliament passed the Standards Act of 2005; it passed the accreditation boarf of Namibia Act of 2005, as well as the Metrology Amendment Act of 2005.

But then, it took another 10 years before Government decided to establish the NSI, that’s how we arrived here. The NSI itself became operational from the 1st of January 2008.

PF: What would you say attracted you to this position?

RK: Well, as far as this position is concerned, it was a logical consequence of the preparations Government had been making over a period of 10 years.

I did not come to this organisation alone, I came with everybody from the Ministry of Trade and Industry who was in that unit establishing the national standards body. So, during that time, the six of us underwent training at different institutions, drafting the necessary procedures and laws.

Then of course the Government operationalised the board of directors and they officially appointed me as the CEO and in November 2007, they appointed other senior management personnel.

PF: How did you handle the South Africa Bureau of Standards (SABS) departure?

RK: We have been working together because shortly after Independence in 1991, the Ministry of Trade and Industry entered into a special agreement with the SABS where the SABS was appointed as a technical inspection body that certified Namibian products, which were being exported outside the country, particularly to the European Union (EU).

In October 1996, the SABS announced that the following year, they would be leaving Namibia, because the SABS here at home was being divided into different sectors; one sector would deal with regulation, another with commercial activities while another sector would deal with standardisation.

This development created panic in the minds of some us.

We were not prepared for that because many Namibians used to say that we should be comfortable with for ever relying on SABS.

Luckily, the ministry had been, in a way, preparing for Namibia to have its own body. We had a lot of confrontation from the industry as people asked why we were preparing a new system when we could fly in experts from South Africa within two hours every now and then to do the SABS job. But we were reminded of one strategic requirement expected from each WTO member, which states that “each country must have some form of national quality infrastructure in place if they have to be globally competitive”.

NSI has to deal with all the issues that conceivably can be done by a national standards body. There are certain things that a national standards body must not do, according to international standards.

A national standards institution, for instance, must not be an accreditation body; it should not accredit other bodies that do technical work.

So from an international standards point of view, we can never be an accreditation body. At the moment, we are the technical inspection body that certifies all Namibian fishery products ear-marked for exports.

During the last two months, we have had a visit from the European Union to investigate our competence because since we took over that function and notified the EU, the NSI has never been inspected. Nobody has come to check whether we are really competent people or not, given the perception that since we took over from SABS, we might lack capabilities.

So they sent the inspection team in here and soon, they will produce a report about our status. They have two possibilities; one, to recommend that we are competent - the whole of the 27 European countries must continue to rely on our services and to trust our certification, or otherwise reject the NSI

And if that happened, it would signal the collapse of a N$19b-worth fishing industry.

PF: But does the common man understand the benefits that you represent? SMEs? Established companies?

RK: If you said that you have constructed a building like the Oupa Indongo Gardens in Windhoek, it would be easy for anyone to believe your capabilities. At the time this building was commissioned some many years ago, the value of the building was about N$54m, that is what was written on paper.

That building could not have stood up if it were not built according to certain standards, so that is where you start to calculate the value of standards.

Take the food that you eat, for instance; you cannot eat food whose standards do not comply with international standards, or else somebody might die. Because the standards say you handle food this way, you have to make sure you prevent certain hazards. If you do not prevent the hazards, there is a possibility that one dangerous hazard may enter the food chain; if it entered the food chain, it would cause injury or death.

We have cars on our streets, they are driven on our streets because they are manufactured according to certain standards.

A cell phone, if not compliant to certain standards, may explode even in your ear - so those are the simple explanations of the importance of standards.

As for competitiveness, the NSI is developing a special programme to support SMEs. And we think that if the SMEs get support from the NSI, the little that they produce becomes competitive and contributes more to the economy of the country and to job-creation in Namibia.

The same goes to the bigger companies as well, many of the bigger companies have not realised the importance of standards. They use standards but they are unaware of their importance; standards are so ubiquitous in that they are in everyday life.

Even the financial sector, which is so successful in our country despite the small size of the economy, relies on standards. We have standards dealing with the running of the financial sector and should they ignore the process, they would collapse.

So everywhere we go, we are governed by standards.

PF: But are you being taken seriously?

RK: Yes. We are also responsible for metrology. For legal metrology, our inspectors make sure that any weighing instrument used for trade is verified according to the law; the Trade Metrology Act. So the business sector has no choice but to take us seriously. We have the power to close down an industry if it does not comply with the laws. That is one of the mandates that we have; we should not allow somebody who does not comply with the rules to continue flooding the market with non-compliant products.

We have a Government-owned fishery company in Luderitz, which for many years, has been operating from a dilapidated factory, an old factory, which may have been built around the 1940s.

We worked very hard to convince the management of that company to get special funding from Government to build a brand new factory, which is now second to none in Namibia and probably in Africa. It is the best factory you can ever find in Namibia but it may never have been constructed had they not been under pressure from compliance with standards.

PF: Metrology, what does it mean?

RK: Metrology is a concept. I know whenever Namibians hear the word metrology, they easily confuse it with meteorology the science of the weather.

Metrology refers to the science of measurements too. Anything that is measured is governed by metrology. For instance, if you say this book weighs 5kgs, somebody has to ask why you say 5kgs, how can you prove that it is 5kgs? Then you have to say, ‘I put it on a weighing scale which reads 5kgs.’ Further, you may ask why you think I must trust that scale. Then I have to say the scale is verified by a qualified person; that this scale is traceable to the national measurements.

Then somebody may come again and ask ‘the national measurement was established by who? How do I trust that the national measurement is correct?’ That’s why the national measurement must be traceable to the international standards. The international standards are called SI units, these standards for mass are in Paris, France.

I saw a film where they showed how to get to these standards, it is somewhere in a basement of a building in Paris. And the keys to the building had three locks, opened by three people from different countries. And even if one went to the basement by themselves, the person who knows the combination to the locks that open that place are the so called ‘International Standards Units’. That person is completely independent from the ones who open the building. That standard is kept under such conditions that it is the most reliable standards that you can ever think of when it comes to mass.

All these so called ‘complicated measurements’ are controlled by that science of measurement, which is called metrology.

Metrology is divided into two sections: One of them is legal metrology; a Government function governed by a law. In Namibia, we have a legal metrology legislation, which we are reviewing at the moment and hope that our line minister, before the end of this year, will have tabled a brand new law that covers all the developments in that field.

The other one is scientific metrology; that is the one that deals with calibration - the checking of whether an instrument actually complies with the standards.

PF: So is certification voluntary or compulsory?

RK: Certification has two components; it can be voluntary or obligatory. Voluntary for somebody who wants to show the world that they comply and can be certified to a certain international standard, such as the famous ISO 9000 standards on a quality management system. And this would mean, they can have a Namibian flag, NSI and ISO logo on their letterheads and when they sell their products, their products can have certain marks of conformity.

Currently, Namibians are used to drinking bottled water, which is certified by the owner; the person who bottles that water is the one who claims that everything is alright and the product complies with this and so on.

International practices require that somebody else who is not involved in that process checks and verifies that what the owner says is true.

The NSI certification is in that position to support or disregard an owner’s claims.

As for the compulsory one, Government may say that a certain product is so important and so sensitive that it may never be done unless the organisation is certified. It can say, for example, that nobody can carry out any Government inspection functions unless the inspector is accredited. So everybody doing Government work including the NSI, the tender board may refuse to award tenders unless one proves that they are accredited by an international body. It means that certification and accreditation has become compulsory, it can only become compulsory if the Government so declares.

Because the Government has a lot of things to do, they cannot always check themselves, because they have the duty of making sure that the citizens and the residents are safe. But they cannot police everything, they always employ somebody to do it on their behalf but in order to trust that this person does the correct thing, they can always have certain requirements, which state that one can do it but these are our requirements.

This is when the conformity forms become compulsory, otherwise, they are voluntary but we are ready to be used for anything, like what we do for the fishing industry, that is compulsory - we inspect and certify players in the industry.

Nobody can export fish out of Namibia unless they have a stamp of the NSI. Nobody in the 27 European Community (EU) countries can eat any Namibian fish unless they see the logo of the NSI. So that one is compulsory.

PF: Are there fees for the services you render?

RK: The fishing industry of course pays fees for utilising our services. The meat industry, through Meatco, is also inspected by the NSI. You can only pay fees if the NSI does something for you. In a voluntary sense, you say, ‘I want you to come and check my products and give us a mark.’ We ask for some little money, which we do not make profit out of but we just have to get our cost recovery payments back.

PF: Are you saying as NSI, you are entirely dependent on Government and that you do not make any profit from the services you render?

RK: We are fully funded by the Government, so we do charge some fees, however, at the moment, 85% of our funding comes from the Parliament Appropriation Bill. It is just because we have not yet maximised our operations. Should we maximise them, the ultimate desire would be to lower the Government subsidies to the NSI up to at least 60%.

If the Government declared that it can only fund certain activities of the NSI and that NSI must look for funds for the rest of its operations, it would be a different case. However, we have not yet advised them to do that because currently, we are not doing everything.

PF: Are you also funded by other organisations worldwide given the technical nature of your industry?

RK: We currently have no funding from anywhere else. During the duration of our establishment process from 2008 until 2010, we had enormous technical funding from EU through Sadc. The EU had a budget of 14.2m Euros, which they gave to the Sadc Secretariat to fund all national standard bodies and other technical bodies in the region, so the NSI benefited from that. Many of our people were trained and a number of equipment were provided during that time. We also got equipment including a motor vehicle from the EU directly to the NSI, so we got some funding up to 2010, at least.

PF: What are the internal frameworks in place to help you meet the demands of various technical requirements and certification?

RK: First and foremost, it’s governance; the NSI complies with corporate governance. It has voluntarily complied with the King III Report on corporate governance. I emphasise the word ‘voluntarily’ because the King III Report is not designed for everybody; it is primarily designed for companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). Even a Namibian company listed on the stock exchange must comply with the King III Report.

The NSI complies with the legislation, the companies law and the Standards Act, to the extent that for the financial years, which ended in March 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 , the NSI produced clean audited financial. The 2012 one is still coming. All these years, we have had clean audit reports; audits which were done by independent external auditors who complied with financial international reporting standards. In addition, we conduct trainings; our technical people are currently on training in perpetuity.

We believe that the type of work that we do requires our people to be at the top of the developments in the market. They have to know the latest developments because we have to comply with the latest developments. We cannot say we cannot comply with this one because it was only introduced yesterday. The moment it is introduced, we must comply, therefore, we continue to train our people.

PF: Going back to the SI units, how does this spill over to the outer world and eventually quality as international standards?

RK: What happens is that all member-states of the United Nations (UN) belong to two organisations: One is called the International Organisation for Legal Metrology. Cabinet has just authorised the NSI to join, we will soon do that. The other organisation is called The International Bureau for Metrology. Now these two organisations have determined that all countries of the world must have their measurement systems traceable to the SI units; they have to prove that they are traceable to the SI units.

If one is not traceable to the SI units, their measurements will not be trusted and anything they trade in will be questioned by their partners.

As you know that trade is something like a war on its own, many countries do not want products from other countries.

You see, many of our business people do not want products from Asia, from China in particular - they always come up with a lot of excuses, ‘Oh, Chinese products can collapse!’, or ‘Look, the Chinese are there, maybe the State House will collapse because it is made by people from Asia’.

It is because they themselves do not trust that anything made outside South Africa or certified by the SABS. So if they see a Chinese, they see death, they think the Chinese will bring death.

So what we simply do is let everybody comply with the international standards. If the Chinese come to us and say they are sending a product to Namibia and it complies with the international standards, the only thing we will do is ask who tested it and where it was tested. ‘In China,’ they’ll say. ‘But how do we know that that body is capable of testing and is competent?’ We’ll ask. ‘No, the person has a certificate from and internationally accredited body,’ they’ll say. So, in order for us to verify their claim, we ask them to send the certificates. We even call the accreditation body or go to the Internet to check if it’s true that the accreditation body has a list and if the name of that company is on that list.

From then, we decide whether to trust that product or not and whether or not to advise the Government to give the green light to the product owners to bring it in.

We also have an additional responsibility to test that product just to be completely sure and to say, although we are told that it is compliant, let us test, just to make sure that it’s real.

We have had some complaints about the incoming cement in our country. The people who are bringing the cement say it complies to international standards, what can you say? According to WTO rules, Namibia has no power to say, ‘don’t sell your cement in our country’. Namibia can only refuse selling cement that does not comply with international standards. If it complies with international standards, our hands are tied.

The Government can only ask the NSI to verify that the cement company is telling the truth. Then we take the sample tests from it and produce a report to say it complies or not. If it does not comply, obviously we will take it off the shelves.

PF: How do you test goods coming from outside the country, given that Namibia heavily relies on imports?

RK: The problem is, we are not allowed to perform any function that has not been delegated to us by law or Cabinet decision. We cannot do that, otherwise, we would be sued. Anything we do is because the law says we have the mandate to do it.

Therefore, many of the imported products into Namibia are not covered by the NSI mandate but we are in the process of selecting certain products, which we know are almost covered by nobody. To that extent, as a technical body, we have the duty to advise our Government that the following products are not advised. We can only cover those products, inspect them and certify them if the Government meets the costs.

Because anything we do has to have a price tag, we have to employ additional people, not only in Windhoek but in almost all selected strategic frontiers of our country.

PF: What kind of relationship do you currently have with the SABS?

RK: As of now, we are colleagues; we are equals; we are both member bodies of the International Organisation Standardisation (ISO). The SABS, because they are older and richer, are full members of the International Electoral Technical Commission IEC. NSI (or Namibia as a country) is not a full member of the IEC, because we cannot even afford the membership fees, it’s too expensive.

Secondly, one must have an industry that produces a lot of electronic gadgets, as well as electro-technical goods and if you do not - as you said - (we import many of those products), why would you necessarily want to become a full member of that organisation?

Therefore, we have negotiated together with the African countries in that international organisation for them to establish a special programme to cover poor developing countries like us. So we belong to the affiliate country programme of the IEC. The affiliate country programme is part of the IEC family but we are not full members, in other words, we cannot vote. We cannot be voted into the leadership of the organisation either. But any standards, which they develop, they share them with us, as we were even given the possibility of adopting 200 of their standards free-of-charge, to adopt them as our own standards.

So that is the big benefit that we get out of the membership of the affiliate country programme of the IEC.

PF: Namibia is a vast country, what are the mechanisms in place to ensure all the players have access to your services?

RK: We don’t have presence at the borders at all. Even at Walvis Bay where we operate, we do not have control over what comes in and out of the border, except for the fish and fishery products. So, we have got the laboratories and inspection function at Walvis Bay and at Luderitz. At Luderitz, the Government will soon inaugurate our newly constructed function there. I am sure that it will be done in the first week of this month, otherwise, we will continue to operate from Windhoek.

Whatever we do is in support of the work of other ministries like the Ministry of Agriculture and so it makes sense for us to co-operate with these ministries.

PF: What are the achievements you are proud of in your four years of existence?

RK: I think the best pride I have as a leader of the organisation is that of the Namibian Standards Council and the board of directors, which was able to assemble very competent young professional women and men.

And because we have got this jewel of our country, we are able to do almost everything. We are proud that these young professionals who had just graduated from the Polytechnic of Namibia and the University of Namibia, were sent for a very short period of time for short courses and today, we call some of them scientists because they can do any test any scientist in the world can do.

We now have to have the kind of laboratory, which is only in South Africa and in a few other countries in Africa. It is a laboratory, which tests for toxins in foods at Walvis Bay. Not only do we want to have that laboratory but we want it accredited by an international accreditation body by international standards; meaning that, its results will be accepted everywhere. We have our other laboratory that tests for microbiology that is also accredited - it is a very big achievement for a very young organisation.

Our inspection body, which I earlier said has been notified to the EU, is also accredited, these are milestones though.

And fourth, is of course governance; due to the fact that we are such a small and new organisation, we can produce clean unqualified audited reports for all the years that we have been in existence; something which many of the SoEs have failed to do to date. You can always hear about them through the media that this one produced one report in 1990, another one may be 1997 and so on and so forth. But for every year, we continue to produce our audited reports as required by our corporate governance principles.

PF: So do you have a checklist?

RK: We sell standards like the international standards that have been sold here since 1999. Nobody else sells standards except for the NSI. And if somebody says that they want standards dealing with wiring of electrical current, we look in the catalogues and if we find them, we order for them from the person who developed it and then we sell it to the person who wants to wire it, according to the standards or else, we adopt the standards ourselves.

PF: Which regional and continental bodies are you affiliated to?

RK: A few months ago, we hosted the African Organisation for Standardisation (ARSO), General Assembly in Windhoek. We brought experts on standardisation from all African countries to Windhoek. So we are a member body of the continental ARSO. At regional level, we are members of the African Standardisation Commission, which is called AFSEC. We are also members of the SADC Standardisation, Quality Assurance, Accreditation and Metrology, which is called the SQAM Programme. At the international level, we are members of the International Organisation, for Standardisation (ISO) and we belong to the Affiliate Country Programme of the IEC.

PF: What can you say about the status of the manufacturing industry in Namibia?

RK: Well, in Namibia, as many of our politicians put it, we are a nation that consumes what we do not produce. And the little that we produce and produce what we do not , we do not consume at all. We produce diamonds but no Namibian woman, like my colleague here, has a Namibian diamond on her ears. Those earrings come from another country, it maybe a Namibian diamond but it might have been bought from London. That type of nonsense is a big problem. Our manufacturing status is still very low but we believe that maybe the standards are not playing a sufficient impetus role, because once the manufacturers become certified and become competent, they may go further and manufacture a lot. The current situation is that somobody these days just sits there and produces something.

We have a young man who we received at our offices; he produces tomato sauce using the tomatoes from the backyard of his mother’s house. He needs to be assisted by the NSI to put up structures that would ensure that everybody in the country and elsewhere believes that, that tomato sauce is safe to consume. They have to put up structures, probably minimum structures.

Ministry of Agriculture will soon establish what we call Farm Fresh Produce facilities here in Windhoek while in Ondangwa, it is almost complete.

We have advised the young tomato manufacturer that when the Ondangwa one is ready, he had better move to Ondangwa and stay there for some time, because the ministry will allow the people of that nature to operate from those premises so they can produce something better. We will assist them, so standards will play a big role in the industrialisation of Namibia in that regard.

We want to convince our ministry that the industrial policy will never succeed without the inclusion of the standards. The ministry is in the process of bringing out a new industrial development policy. That industrial development policy must have a strong component of standards in Namibia.

PF: What keeps you awake?

RK: What keeps me awake is any possibility of the NSI meeting its deadlines. If I don’t have a report on what should have been presented, I get worried; I always follow up. I call all the general managers and the executives in my organisation to ask them how far we are with a particular issue and so on.

In other words, I do not give delegated authority to an executive and simply just forget about it. I always keep on following it up. Everybody who works with me knows that they cannot get an assignment and then think it will be forgotten. It can never be forgotten because I’ll be thinking about it every day. I always keep pulse on the development of NSI.

PF: What are you currently reading?

RK: I am currently reading a book about Kenya called ‘It is Our Turn to Eat’. I am an eager reader, I read everything. I stayed for many years with Moses Garoeb, the late secretary-general of the Swapo party. That man could read anything, he was probably the most articulate person this country has ever had. You could even give him children’s books and he could read them. If you gave him the serious stuff, he could read those too. I read everything and I am a very, very fast reader no matter how thick the book is, I can complete it within few days.

PF: Who are your heroes?

RK: No doubt, my heroes are my political leaders; Sam Nujoma is my hero because he is one person who taught us how to sacrifice. I sacrificed my youth for the better good. I believe he is a utilitarian because he believes that the good for the majority is the best for the entire country. If everybody in our country were satisfied with development, he would be too and therefore, he is my hero. On an international level, my hero is Fidel Castro, of course.

PF: What then motivates you to steer the NSI further?

The NSI vision: To establish the NSI as the national standards body contributing to a world class economy in Namibia... that is really my motto. In other words, Namibia should become a world class economy and not a so called ‘third-world economy’. I know there are Namibians who say that they do not want our country to be classified as a middle income country, as others would not give us support and so on. For me to reach the status of the so called ‘middle income’ that is a development.

As a 22-year-old country, we are already in the status of a middle income, Vision 2030 states that we must be an industrialised country. How can you move towards industrialisation if you have not passed through the middle income development? So, we must go back and become one of the least developed country in order for us to jump from there to being an industrialised country? I don’t believe this from an intellectual point of view though.

Of course, we should never lose sight of the fact that this so called ‘upper middle income’ is not even true because it is distorted by the income disparities, which is the highest in the world. Because of that income inequality, a few people, may be about 20 people in our country, own everything and they own too much to the extent that if that money were to be divided among all Namibians, every Namibian would get about N$10 000 each. We have got everybody poor except for 20 people. But that does not, in actual fact, put Namibia as an upper middle income country.

But the mere fact that we have this status, puts pressure on our Government to distribute that wealth properly among the people of our country. It is a question of wealth distribution; a middle income country simply means the wealth is in the country. Does that wealth go to everybody? The answer is a big NO. The wealth only goes to a very small minority group. How do we make sure the wealth does not remain concentrated in the hands of this small minority group then? That is not my duty but the Government’s.

PF: Your parting shot?

RK: I’d like to emphasise that young Namibians must study in the field of science. I have studied in the field of law but unfortunately, the field of law is not what drives the NSI, the field of law is one of the areas, which supports the operations of NSI. The pillars of NSI is science, you cannot be a metrologist unless you have a scientific background. You cannot be a scientist in a laboratory and work in test labs unless you are a scientist.

So young Namibians must diversify and move away from social sciences, towards natural sciences when they are studying at high schools - that is the clarion call I am making to them. They must not fear mathematics. If mathematics appears difficult, it only means one doesn’t understand it and there are so many ways in an independent and free country like ours to obtain information to help one understand anything. Most Namibians, especially blacks, do not believe in the country’s capabilities or even in themselves and wonder what courage people like me have (or NSI) to pursue certain things. But they should have a little more faith in themselves as well as in us.
So Namibians, as cynical as they are, never say it openly to your face but they will do things to show you that they don’t believe that what you do is correct or that you are even capable of doing it. But because we have trust in our young people, we have achieved what we have today. PF




PROFILE


PERSONAL DETAILS:


Date of Birth: 17 October 1950

Marital Status: Married

EDUCATION:

Sept 1991 - Oct 1992: LL.M in International Economic Law (With Distinction), University of Warwick, UK;

Courses done: International Business Contracts;
European Community law; International
Economic Law; International Human Rights Law.

Dissertation: Foreign Investment Prospects in Post-Colonial Namibia, a Dissertation in partial fulfilment of the Requirements of an LL.M degree, University of Warwick, UK.

Sept 1984 - June 1986 and
Sept 1990 - June 1991: LL.B (Hons) With 2.1 (Upper Second Class), University of
Warwick, UK

Courses done: English Legal System; Law of Contract;
Torts; Criminal Law; Planning Law; Evidence; Law of Trusts; Consumer Law; Public and Private International Law; Law of Business organisations; Constitutional and Administrative Law; Consumer Law; Constitutional Law and Theory in the Third World.

November 1972 - Nov 1974: Martin Luther High School, Form V (Matriculation);

Jan 1970 - Oct 1971: Augustineum Training College, Windhoek Form II;

Jan 1962 - Sept 1969: Std. 6 (Grade 8), Rietquelle Primary School;


EXPERIENCE:

Since 1 August 2007 to date: On a five-year contract as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Namibian Standards Institution (NSI) serving as the accounting officer, spearheading its corporate governance and the Strategic Plan.